Proantocianidinas de Algarroba para el tratamiento de la Hipercolesterolemia

Proantocianidinas de Algarroba para el tratamiento de la Hipercolesterolemia

En el Boletín Informativo del mes de Mayo 2016, de la Asociación Empresas Innovadoras de la Garrofa, podemos leer un interesante estudio realizado por Dr. B. Ruiz-Roso y Dra. Ana Mª Requejo, del Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM.

PROANTOCIANIDINAS DE ALGARROBA, UN NUEVO PRODUCTO ANTIOXIDANTE PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA HIPERCOLESTEROLEMIA
 

Los valores elevados de triglicéridos y colesterol en sangre son un factor de riesgo de las  enfermedades cardiovasculares, la primera causa de muerte en España. Diferentes estudios han demostrado que poblaciones que ingieren dietas altas en fibra tienen menores cantidades de colesterol en sangre en comparación con poblaciones que consumen menos fibra. También son conocidos los efectos beneficiosos de la fibra vegetal en la protección de la integridad de la barrera intestinal y la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares. 

Las fibras dietéticas contienen diferentes compuestos bioactivos, aunque de forma mayoritaria están constituidas por productos de escasa o nula actividad, como celulosas. Un componente minoritario de la fibra dietética son los polifenoles. En la planta los polifenoles pueden encontrarse libres o unidos a componentes de la pared celular. Esta localización junto con su peso molecular, permite diferenciarlos entre polifenoles solubles e insolubles. 

Los polifenoles insolubles tienen alto peso molecular y se les atribuye diferentes efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud. No obstante, en la actualidad la aplicación con fines terapéuticos de los suplementos de fibra es problemática debido principalmente a que las fibras vegetales son mezclas de sustancias con una composición química muy heterogénea y variable, cuyo único punto común es que se trata de una parte de los alimentos no atacable por los enzimas digestivos. Por este motivo es difícil en la práctica caracterizar y dosificar sus principios activos. 

Entre los compuestos bioactivos de algunas fibras vegetales y de los suplementos dietéticos comerciales de fibra que consumimos se encuentran, en muy pequeña cantidad, los polifenoles insolubles. Una de las fibras dietéticas con más contenido en polifenoles es la fibra de algarroba (Ceratonia siliqua) que tienen un contenido de polifenoles insolubles aproximadamente del 40%. Esta fibra reduce los niveles de colesterol pero las dosis eficaces supondrían cantidades entre 25 y 50gr/día, muy elevadas para su empleo terapéutico. En este sentido, se ha desarrollado en el Departamento de Nutrición de la Facultad de Farmacia de la UCM un procedimiento de enriquecimiento en proantocianidinas de la fibra de algarroba, hasta un contenido del 80% de polifenoles insolubles de alto peso molecular (proantocianidinas)  (Patente ES 2.187.356). 

Las proantocianidinas presentes en este producto, producen una interacción de tipo hidrofóbico con el colesterol y las sales biliares, que son así eliminados en las heces en forma de complejo con dichas proantocianidinas. De esta manera se interrumpe el ciclo enterohepático del colesterol y sales biliares y como consecuencia disminuye el colesterol en el organismo. El enriquecimiento en proantocianidinas de alto peso molecular del producto obtenido por el procedimiento de la patente, produce un efecto hipocolesterolémico máximo a dosis aceptables para el consumo humano, utilizables ya en una forma farmacéutica (cápsulas, sobres, etc.), y con bajos efectos astringentes. 

En estudios preclínicos con animales se ha encontrado una reducción sobre colesterol del 40% y del 20% de triglicéridos. Resultados confirmados en varios ensayos clínicos en personas con hipercolesterolemia encontrando  importantes reducciones de colesterol y triglicéridos tras la ingestión con la comida de un sobre con 2gr de proantocianidinas de algarroba. También se le ha demostrado un efecto antioxidante que permite su utilización como aditivo de aceites y alimentos ricos en grasa aumentando su vida útil. 

* Estudio realizado por Dr. B. Ruiz-Roso y Dra. Ana Mª Requejo, del Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Farmacia, UCM.


Fuente y Fotografía de Empresas Innovadoras de la Garrofa (EiG).

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      Hola, buscando información sobre la algarroba he encontrado este artículo : El enriquecimiento en proantocianidinas produce un efecto hipocolesterolémico utilizables ya en una forma farmacéutica (cápsulas, sobres, etc.), quería saber si se puede conseguir y donde . En la familia somos varios que no podemos tratarnos con atorvastatinas. Muy agradecida.

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